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Genomics Inform > Volume 6(1); 2008 > Article
Functional Prediction of Imprinted Genes in Chicken Based on a Mammalian Comparative Expression Network.
Hyo Young Kim, Sunjin Moon, Heebal Kim
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
2Graduate Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
Little evidence supports the existence of imprinted genes in chicken. Imprinted genes are thought to be intimately connected with the acquisition of parental resources in mammals; thus, the predicted lack of this type of gene in chicken is not surprising, given that they leave their offspring to their own heritance after conception. In this study, we identified several imprinted genes and their orthologs in human, mouse, and zebrafish, including 30 previously identified human and mouse imprinted genes. Next, using the HomoloGene database, we identified six orthologous genes in human, mouse, and chicken; however, no orthologs were identified for SLC22A18, and mouse Ppp1r9a was not included in the HomoloGene database. Thus, from our analysis, four candidate chicken imprinted genes (IGF2, UBE3A, PHLDA2, and GRB10) were identified. To expand our analysis, zebrafish was included, but no probe ID for UBE3A exists in this species. Thus, ultimately, three candidate imprinted genes (IGF2, PHLDA2, and GRB10) in chicken were identified. GRB10 was not significant in chicken and zebrafish based on the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, whereas a weak correlation between PHLDA2 in chicken and human was identified from the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Significant associations between human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish were found for IGF2 and GRB10 using the Friedman's test. Based on our results, IGF2, PHLDA2, and GRB10 are candidate imprinted genes in chicken. Importantly, the strongest candidate was PHLDA2.
Keywords: chicken; conservation; homologs; imprinted genes; statistical analysis


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